What Are the Common Conditions in the Mouth?

Some of the most common diseases that affect our oral health include cavities (dental caries), gum disease (periodontal disease) and oral cancer. More than 40% of adults report having experienced pain in the mouth in the past year, and more than 80% of people will have had at least one tooth decay before the age of 34.

Cold Sores

Cold sores, also known as fever blisters, are caused by the herpes simplex virus. They are small, painful blisters that usually appear on the lips or around the mouth. Symptoms include itching, burning, and tingling before the blisters appear.

Treatment includes over-the-counter creams and ointments to reduce discomfort and speed healing.

Dental Abscesses

A dental abscess is an infection that occurs when bacteria enter a crack in a tooth or gum and cause an accumulation of pus. Symptoms include severe pain, swelling, fever, and bad breath. Treatment includes antibiotics to clear the infection and a root canal to remove any damaged tissue.

Dry Mouth

Dry mouth is a condition in which saliva production is reduced, leading to a feeling of dryness in the mouth. It can be caused by certain medications, dehydration, or medical conditions such as Sjogren's syndrome. Treatment includes drinking plenty of fluids and using saliva substitutes or artificial saliva products.

Gum Disease

Gum disease is an infection of the gums caused by bacteria that enter the cracks in a person's gums.

Toxins created by these bacteria irritate surrounding gum tissue, causing inflammation and bleeding when brushing teeth. If left untreated, it can lead to periodontal disease, which causes pockets of pus to form below the gum line and can lead to tooth loss.

Mouth Ulcers

Mouth ulcers are small sores that form inside the mouth. They can be caused by stress, lack of certain vitamins, hypersensitivity, or infections.

Dental Cavities

Dental cavities, also known as tooth decay, are caused by bacteria that feed on sugars in food and drink and produce acid that erodes tooth enamel. Symptoms include pain when eating or drinking hot or cold foods and drinks, bad breath, and visible holes in teeth. Treatment includes fillings to repair damaged teeth and regular brushing with fluoride toothpaste to prevent further damage.


Toothache, also known as dental pain, is caused by inflammation of the nerves inside a tooth due to infection or injury.

Symptoms include sharp pain when eating or drinking hot or cold foods and drinks, sensitivity to sweet foods, bad breath, and visible holes in teeth. Treatment includes antibiotics to clear any infection and fillings to repair damaged teeth.

Hand Foot & Mouth Disease

Hand foot & mouth disease, also known as HFMD, is a viral infection mainly affecting children under 10 years old during summer and fall months. Symptoms include sore throat, difficulty swallowing, fever feeling, and blisters on the back of the mouth.

Treatment includes over-the-counter medications to reduce discomfort.


Thrush, also known as candidiasis or yeast infection, is caused by candida yeast overgrowth in the mouth. It is more common in older adults or infants but can occur in anyone with a weakened immune system due to antibiotics or certain medications such as inhaled corticosteroids. Treatment includes antifungal medications.

Canker Sores

Canker sores, also known as aphthous ulcers, are small painful blisters that form inside the mouth on the tongue, cheeks, or gums. They usually last for one to two weeks but can be treated with anesthetic creams or prescription medications if they are persistent or severe.


Leukoplakia, also known as white patches inside the mouth, is a reaction to an irritant such as rough teeth or ill-fitting dentures. It can appear as white spots or plaques in the mouth but cannot be removed with a scrape.

It can be a precancerous condition so persistent stains or other changes should be evaluated by a dentist.

Lichen Planus

Lichen planus, also known as lace rash inside the mouth, is an inflammatory condition that appears as white spots or bright red bumps on the inside of cheeks or tongue. The cause is unknown but triggers may include hypersensitivity reactions, infections, hormones, stress, and lack of certain vitamins.

Oral Cancer < p > < b >Oral cancer is a rare type of cancer that affects any part of the mouth including lips , tongue , cheeks , gums , palate , floor of the mouth , salivary glands , tonsils , and throat. Symptoms include sore in the mouth that won't go away , unexplained numbness in face , neck , or mouth.

Causes may include smoking cigarettes , smokeless tobacco use , excessive drinking , too much exposure to sun , family history of cancer , human papillomavirus ( HPV ). Early detection is key for successful treatment. < h2 > Other Conditions Related To Oral Health < p > Other conditions related to oral health include eating disorders , rheumatoid arthritis , certain types of cancer , immune system disorder ( Sjogren's syndrome ) which causes dry mouth. Hairy tongue is another condition which occurs when small bumps on tongue lengthen trapping bacteria making tongue look black.


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